Tools to protect against cyber threats

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Other than the general use of antivirus, firewalls & gateways, strong passwords, secure wi-fi connection, training to netizen, etc. there are few other practices which keep our data and network safe from cyber threats. Some of them are mentioned below:
Digital Signatures
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A Digital Signature is a technique by which it is possible to secure electronic information in such a way that the originator of the information, as well as the integrity of the information, can be verified. This procedure of guaranteeing the origin and the integrity of the information is also called Authentication.
The authenticity of many legal, financial, and other documents is determined by the presence or absence of an authorized handwritten signature. For a computerized message system to replace the physical transport of paper and ink documents handwritten signatures have to be replaced by Digital Signatures.
A digital signature is only a technique that can be used for different authentication purposes. For an E-record, it comes functionally very close to the traditional handwritten signatures. The user himself/ herself can generate key pair by using specific crypto software. Now Microsoft IE and Netscape, allow the user to create his/ her own key pair. Any person may make an application to the Certifying Authority for issue of Digital Signature Certificate.
One of the most powerful and important methods for security in computer systems is to encrypt sensitive records and messages in transit and in storage. Cryptography has a long and colourful history. Historically, four groups of people have used and contributed to the art of Cryptography, the military, the diplomatic corps, diarists, and lovers. The military has had the most sensitive role and has shaped the field.

At present, information and data security plays a vital role in the security of the country, the security of the corporate sector and also of every individual, working for personal benefit. The message or data to be encrypted, also known as the plaintext, is transformed by a function that is parameterized by a KEY. The output of the encryption process, known as the cipher text, is then transmitted through the insecure communication channel. The art of breaking ciphers is called cryptanalysis. The art of devising ciphers (cryptography) and breaking them (cryptanalysis) is collectively known as cryptology. It is done with the help of algorithms, few of them are- The Secret-Key Algorithm, Data Encryption Standard (DES, Public Key Algorithms, RSA Algorithm, etc.
Security Audit
A security audit is a systematic evaluation of the security of a company’s information system by measuring how well it conforms to a set of established criteria. It is to find out the vulnerabilities that an organization is facing with its IT infrastructure. A thorough audit typically assesses the security of the system’s physical configuration and environment, software, information handling processes, and user practices.
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